We wish to acknowledge Dr. Louis Zanella's generosity in giving us permission to include material from his dissector in this web site.  It is a wonderful addition to this study tool and we are grateful to him.

A Regional Dissector of the Cat, Louis J. Zanella, Ed.D., 1996

Chapter 1:  Thorax, Shoulder and Neck

Refer to individual human bones and to the articulated human skeleton. Study the following bones and bony landmarks.


Distinguish between cervical cervic1.jpg (6200 bytes), thoracic Dscn0483.jpg (60650 bytes), lumbar Dscn0501.jpg (73352 bytes) and sacral vertebra Dscn0416a.jpg (79686 bytes) DSCN0412a.jpg (88153 bytes), identify an atlas Dscn0463.jpg (54668 bytes) and an axis Dscn0467a.jpg (52300 bytes) Dscn0468a.jpg (55562 bytes). On each vertebra identify the following bony landmarks: body Dscn0495.jpg (74529 bytes), transverse process , spinous process Dscn0471.jpg (76633 bytes) , articular processes Dscn0474.jpg (58550 bytes) Dscn0492.jpg (56150 bytes) , articular facets Dscn0486.jpg (76608 bytes) and vertebral foramen . Find the odontoid process (dens) 388.jpg (57242 bytes) on the axis and the transverse costal facets and costal demifacets Dscn0489.jpg (59688 bytes) 403.jpg (62248 bytes) on a thoracic vertebra and the transverse foramen Dscn0470.jpg (56988 bytes) on a cervical vertebra. On the vertebral column identify the intervertebral foramina and the sacral foramina . Identify the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral curvatures.


Identify head Dscn0454.jpg (120804 bytes), neck Dscn0455.jpg (124800 bytes), tubercle , angle, subcostal groove Dscn0425.jpg (96462 bytes), and body Dscn0456.jpg (125679 bytes). On the articulated skeleton identify the true, false and floating ribs.


Identify the segments called sternebrae. The wide superior segment is the manubrium . The body (gladiolus) is made up of four central sternebrae. The joint between the manubrium and the gladiolus is the sternal angle (angle of Louis) . The inferior most sternebra is the xiphoid process .


Identify the spine , acromion Dscn0436.jpg (95877 bytes), metacromion (cat only) , supraspinous fossa Dscn0444.jpg (123236 bytes), infraspinous fossa , subscapular fossa , glenoid cavity , coracoid process , suprascapular notch , superior angle Dscn0443.jpg (89298 bytes), inferior angle Dscn0440.jpg (102657 bytes), supraglenoid tubercle , infraglenoid tubercle , and vertebral border (medial border) Dscn0442.jpg (92710 bytes).


Identify the acromion end (distal end) Dscn0479.jpg (49723 bytes) and the sternal end (proximal end) Dscn0450.jpg (103593 bytes).


On the occipital bone locate the occipital condyles , nuchal lines and the external occipital protuberance . Identify the mastoid process of the temporal bone.
Identify the above on the articulated cat skeleton.

Last Updated: 11/13/18